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Year 2008

JN : J Med Assoc Thai. 2008 Oct;91(10):1571-82.
TI : Dosimetric study of inverse-planed intensity modulated, forward-planned intensity modulated and conventional tangential techniques in breast conserving radiotherapy.
AU : Rongsriyam K, Rojpornpradit P, Lertbutsayanukul C, Sanghangthum T, Oonsiri S.
EN-AB: OBJECTIVE: The authors present the result of a dosimetric comparison of inverse-planed intensity modulated, forward-planned intensity modulated, and conventional tangential technique in breast conserving radiotherapy. METHOD AND MATERIAL: The breasts (Right side: Left side = 1:1), heart, and lungs of 28 patients were contoured on all the computed tomography (CT)-slice. Three different treatment plans were created: (1) inverse IMRT (iIMRT), (2) forward IMRT (fIMRT), and (3) conventional tangential technique (CVT). The total prescribed dose for all plans was 50 Gy/25 fractions. All treatment plans were normalized at 95% of the prescribed dose covered the entire PTV and used inhomogeneity corrections. RESULTS: For the entire group, the mean breast volume was 517 cc. The V105% for iIMRT, fIMRT and conventional plans was 1.12%, 2.36% and 16.81%, which iIMRT better than fIMRT and CVT (p < 0.001) and fIMRT better than CVT (p < 0.05). The Dmax for the iIMRT plan received 105.03%, which was significantly less than those from the fIMRT(106.6%, p < 0.001) and the conventional (110.68%, p < 0.001) plan. The PTV coverage (V95-105%) for the iIMRT, fIMRTand conventional was 96%, 91% and 87%, which iIMRT better than fIMRT and CVT (p < 0.05) and fIMRT better than CVT (p < 0.05). The PTV CI for the iIMRT technique was 0.704, which was significantly more conformity than those from the fIMRT (0.639, p < 0.001) and the conventional (0.539, p < 0.001) techniques. The PTV CI of fIMRT is significantly better than CVT (p < 0.005). Mean ipsilateral lung dose was 642.7 cGy, 747.6 cGy and 882.25 cGy for iIMRT fIMRT and CVT respectively (p < 0.05) The V20Gy reduced from 14.87% for conventional plan to 12.82% for the fIMRT plan, while 0.88% was obtained for the iIMRT plan (P<0.05). The heart V30 Gy value was 3.124%, 4.65%, and 5.84% for iIMRT, fIMRT and conventional plans, respectively (p < 0.05). The mean dose of contralateral breast was 55.86 cGy, 60.33 cGy, 68.57 cGy for iIMRT, fIMRT and conventional plans, respectively (p < 0.05 both). The mean contralateral lung dose was 57.8 cGy, 43.87 cGy, and 32.28 cGy for iIMRT, fIMRT and conventional plans, respectively (p < 0.005 both). CONCLUSION: The iIMRT technique provides significantly improved PTV Dmax, PTV V105%, PTV V110%, target volume coverage, dose homogeneity and dose conformity throughout the target volume of breast and reduced doses to all critical structures, compared to the fIMRT and conventional techniques. In view of fIMRT technique, it significantly improved the dose distribution and reduced dose to OARs compared to conventional technique, although not better than iIMRT technique. (NO 18972902)

JN : J Med Assoc Thai. 2008 Feb;91(2):215-24.
TI : A two-year experience of implementing 3 dimensional radiation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for 925 patients in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital.
AU : Lertbutsayanukul C, Shotelersuk K, Khorprasert C, Sanghangthum T, Oonsiri S, Ayuthaya II, Jumpangern C, Suriyapee S, Rojpornpradit P.
EN-AB: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have been implemented at Department of Therapeutic Radiation and Oncology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH) since July 2005. This is the first study in Thailand to evaluate the pattern of care and utilization of 3D CRT and IMRT for treatment in each individual cancer. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Between July 2005 and July 2007, 925 newly diagnosed cancer patients underwent IMRT or 3D CRT at KCMH. The authors retrospectively reviewed the experience and utilization of 3D CRT and IMRT for each disease site and region. RESULTS: There were 471 males and 454 females. There were 332 patients (35.9%) treated with IMRT. Among the 332 IMRT patients, there were 100, 32 and 27 nasopharyngeal, lung and prostate cancers, respectively. On the contrary, 593 patients (64.1%) were treated with 3D CRT. Among these, breast, cervix and lung cancers were the most common diseases. Except for head and neck as well as genitourinary cancer 3D CRT was still the main technique used in more than 60% of the patients at KCMH. CONCLUSION: 3D CRT and IMRT have been successfully implemented at KCMH for 2 years. Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy was still the main technique used in more than 60% of the patients at KCMH. Prospective studies evaluating tumor control and treatment sequelae are expected. (NO 18389987)

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Year 2007

JN : Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007 Sep-Oct;17(5):949-56. Epub 2007 Feb 14.
TI : Adjuvant therapy for early-stage endometrial cancer: a review.
AU : Tangjitgamol S, Manusirivithaya S, Lertbutsayanukul C.
EN-AB: Most patients with endometrial cancer (EMC) present their symptoms early in their course, leading to an overall favorable outcome. However, some patients who are in early-stage diseases may carry some risk features that would hamper their prognoses. For these early-stage diseases with high risk of recurrences, radiation therapy certainly plays a major role as an adjuvant treatment. Despite an excellent local diseases control by radiation, systemic failures are still encountered. To improve the prognoses, other types of adjuvant therapy have been attempted. In this review, various options of adjuvant treatment for this early-stage EMC including radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy are discussed. (NO 17309664)

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Year 2006

JN : J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Dec;89(12):2068-76.
TI : Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in head-and-neck cancer, first report in Thailand.
AU : Lertbutsayanukul C, Khorprasert C, Shotelersuk K, Jumpangern C, Sanghangthum T, Oonsiri S, Ayuthaya II, Suriyapee S, Wadwongtham W, Supanakorn S, Kerekanjanarong V, Rojpornpradit P.
EN-AB: OBJECTIVE: This is the first report in Thailand to evaluate the efficacy of using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the primary treatment of head-and-neck cancer. MATERIAL AND METHOD: From July 2005 to March 2006, eighteen patients with head and neck cancer were treated with IMRT, fourteen of which were nasopharyngeal cancer. The median age at diagnosis was 52 years (range 23-58 years). The treatment plan composed of two sequential plans for PTV-low risk (50Gy in 25 fractions) and PTV-high risk (20Gy in 10 fractions). Chemotherapy was given to 13 patients with locoregionally advanced disease (stage T3/T4 and N2/3) using cisplatin (n = 3) or carboplatin (n = 10) every 3 weeks during the course of radiation therapy. RESULTS: The median overall treatment time was 49 days (range, 43-57 days), and 77.8 percent of the patients completed 35 fractions within 50 days. The clinical complete response and partial response rates at 3 months after complete radiation were 71.4% and 28.6%, respectively. However at the median follow-up of 5.6 months, the complete response rate increased to 89%. Treatment break during RT range from 3 to 7 days, was observed in three patients. All of them received concurrent chemoradiation. No distant metastasis was noted. CONCLUSION: The authors' experience of using concurrent chemotherapy with IMRT for a cohort of patients with head and neck carcinoma showed a very high rate response rate at early follow-up. Long-term clinical outcome is expected. (NO 17214058)

JN : J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Nov;89(11):1874-84.
TI : Preoperative capecitabine with pelvic radiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer (phase I trial).
AU : Veerasarn V, Phromratanapongse P, Lorvidhaya V, Lertsanguansinchai P, Lertbutsayanukul C, Panichevaluk A, Boonnuch W, Chinswangwatanakul V, Lohsiriwat D, Rojanasakul A, Thavichaigarn P, Jivapaisarnpong P.
EN-AB: OBJECTIVE: Phase I multicenter study defined the maximal tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and safety profile of capecitabine in combination with preoperative radiation for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Patients were treated with oral capecitabine (700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200 mg/m2 twice daily continuously) plus preoperative whole pelvic irradiation (45-46 Gy in 23-25 fractions over 5-6 weeks). Surgery was performed at the median of 42 days after chemoradiation treatment. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were in this trial. Eighteen patients (3 per dose level) had received capecitabine from 700 mg/m2 twice daily to the highest dose level of 1200 mg/m2 twice daily. There were no grade 3/4 DLTs during dose escalation, a further nine patients were included at the highest capecitabine dose. Two of the twelve patients (16%) receiving capecitabine 1200 mg/m2 twice daily developed grade 3 diarrhea and discontinued treatment. There were no other grade 3/4 adverse events. After capecitabine chemoradiation, 24 of 27 patients (89%) received definite surgery. Primary and lymph node down staging occurred in ten patients (42%). Sphincter-sparing surgery was performed in seven patients (26%) and abdominal-perineal resection was performed in 17 patients (63%). CONCLUSION: Preoperative capecitabine chemoradiation based on continuous daily capecitabine is very well tolerated in patients with LARC. The authors did not reach the MTD in the present study. (NO 17205868)

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Year 2004

JN : J Med Assoc Thai. 2004 Sep;87 Suppl 2:S168-74.
TI : Pattern of local-regional recurrence in patient with early breast cancer after mastectomy: an analysis of 357 cases at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital.
AU : Lertsanguansinchai P, Lertbutsayanukul C, Chatamra K, Shotelersuk K, Voravud N, Khorprasert C.
EN-AB: A retrospective review was performed on 357 patients with early stage I-IIIA operable breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy and referred to the clinic at the Division of Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between Jan 1991 and Dec 2001. Patients characteristics, treatment modalities and pattern of local and regional failure were evaluated. The median and mean age in the present study were 49 and 50.2 years, respectively. Stage I, II and IIIA were 10.9%, 79.6% and 9.5%, respectively. One hundred and ninety-seven patients (55.2%) received postoperative radiation therapy (RT). Adjuvant chemotherapy was given in 247 patients (69.2%) while 122 patients (34.2%) received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Sixty one patients (17.1%) received both adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. However, 12.6% (45/357) did not receive any adjuvant treatment. Median follow up time was 42.6 months (range 6-136 months). Ipsilateral supraclavicular node and chest wall were the most common sites of local-regional recurrence. The chest wall recurrence rate was 10.4% (37/357), which was 16.9% (27/160) in the non postoperative radiation (No RT) group and 5.1% (10/197) in the postoperative radiation (RT) group. For ispilateral supraclavicular node, the recurrence rate was 10.6% (38/357), which was 15.6% (25/160) and 6.6% (13/197) for non RT and RT groups, respectively. The incidence of ipsilateral axilla, ipsilateral internal mammary node and ipsilateral infraclavicular node recurrence rate were 4.2%, 3.6% and 0.8%, respectively. Overall, chest wall and ipsilateral supraclavicular node were the most common sites of local-regional recurrence in early stage operable breast cancer who underwent mastectomy Postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy decreased the risk of local-regional recurrence. (NO 16083182)

JN : Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Aug 1;59(5):1424-31.
TI : Phase III randomized trial comparing LDR and HDR brachytherapy in treatment of cervical carcinoma.
AU : Lertsanguansinchai P, Lertbutsayanukul C, Shotelersuk K, Khorprasert C, Rojpornpradit P, Chottetanaprasith T, Srisuthep A, Suriyapee S, Jumpangern C, Tresukosol D, Charoonsantikul C.
EN-AB: PURPOSE: Intracavitary brachytherapy plays an important role in the treatment of cervical carcinoma. Previous results have shown controversy between the effect of dose rate on tumor control and the occurrence of complications. We performed a prospective randomized clinical trial to compare the clinical outcomes between low-dose-rate (LDR) and high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy for treatment of invasive uterine cervical carcinoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 237 patients with previously untreated invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomized between June 1995 and December 2001. Excluding ineligible, incomplete treatment, and incomplete data patients, 109 and 112 patients were in the LDR and HDR groups, respectively. All patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy and LDR or HDR intracavitary brachytherapy using the Chulalongkorn treatment schedule. RESULTS: The median follow-up for the LDR and HDR groups was 40.2 and 37.2 months, respectively. The actuarial 3-year overall and relapse-free survival rate for all patients was 69.6% and 70%, respectively. The 3-year overall survival rate in the LDR and HDR groups was 70.9% and 68.4% (p = 0.75) and the 3-year pelvic control rate was 89.1% and 86.4% (p = 0.51), respectively. The 3-year relapse-free survival rate in both groups was 69.9% (p = 0.35). Most recurrences were distant metastases, especially in Stage IIB and IIIB patients. Grade 3 and 4 complications were found in 2.8% and 7.1% of the LDR and HDR groups (p = 0.23). CONCLUSION: Comparable outcomes were demonstrated between LDR and HDR intracavitary brachytherapy. Concerning patient convenience, the lower number of medical personnel needed, and decreased radiation to health care workers, HDR intracavitary brachytherapy is an alternative to conventional LDR brachytherapy. The high number of distant failure suggests that other modalities such as systemic concurrent or adjuvant chemotherapy might lower this high recurrence, especially in Stage IIB and IIIB. (NO 15275728)

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Year 2003

JN : J Med Assoc Thai. 2003 Jul;86(7):603-11.
TI : Intracranial germ cell tumors: experience in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital.
AU : Shotelersuk K, Rojpornpradit P, Chottetanaprasit T, Lertbutsayanukul C, Lertsanguansinchai P, Khorprasert C, Asavametha N, Suriyapee S, Jumpangern C.
EN-AB: A retrospective study was performed on 69 patients with intracranial germ cell tumors who were treated at the Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from 1990 to 2000. Median age was 15 years. Forty-two cases (60.87%) had histologically confirmed germinoma or nongerminomatous germ cell tumors. Germinoma was the predominate histology followed by mixed germ cell tumors. Pineal and suprasellar regions were the two leading sites, hydrocephalus (85.5%) and diplopia (57.97%) were the two most common clinical presentations. Only 13 cases had the result of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology or magnetic resonance imagine (MRI) of the spine before initial treatment. Serum tumor markers, Alpha fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, were available in 66.67 per cent. Total or partial tumor removal were feasible in 24 cases. Whole brain irradiation was given in almost all cases with the median dose of 3,600 cGy. The median total tumor dose was 5,400 cGy. Whole spine radiation was utilized in 17 cases. The mean follow-up time was 41 months. The five-year disease free survival was 73.59 per cent. Overall 3 and 5 year survival rates were 86.45 per cent and 81.64 per cent, respectively. (NO 12948253)

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Year 2002

AU : Lertsanguansinchai P, Chottetanaprasith T, Chatamra K, Sampatanukul P, Wannakrairot P, Rojpornpradit P, Shotelersuk K, Lertbutsayanukul C, Boonjunwetwat D, Vajragupta L.
TI : Estrogen and progesterone receptors status in Thai female breast cancer patients : an analysis of 399 cases at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital.
JN : J Med Assoc Thai 2002 Jun ; 85 (Suppl 1) : S193-S202
EN-AB: A retrospective review was performed on 576 patients who have been diagnosed breast cancer and referred to Division of Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between January 1995-September 2001. There were three hundred ninety nine cases of invasive breast cancer that available for estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone (PR) receptor status. The mean and median age in our study were 49.6 year and 49.0 year respectively. About 60.9 per cent of the patients were pre and peri-menopause and 37.8 per cent were post-menopause. Most of the histological cell type were invasive ductal carcinoma which comprised of 92.7 per cent. Histologic grading were nearly equal for moderately and poorly differentiated grade: 43.66 per cent and 40.66 per cent. The results of our study showed 53.4 per cent of 399 patients had ER positive and 42.1 per cent of 380 patients had PR positive. The proportion of ER+PR+, ER+PR-, ER-PR+, and ER-PR- were 36.31 per cent, 15.53 per cent, 5.79 per cent and 42.37 per cent respectively. Older age and post-menopause women had higher ER+. While patients with increase tumor size, poorly differentiated grading, increase positivity of axillary lymph nodes and higher stage have more chance of ER negative and PR negative. (NO 07577)

AU : Lertbutsayanukul C, Lertsanguansinchai P.
TI : Concurrent chemoradiation for head and neck cancer.
JN : Chula Med J 2002 Jan ; 46 (1) : 11-17 (NO 08000)

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Year 2001

AU : Lertbutsayanukul C, Lertsanguansinchai P, Shotelersuk K, Khorprasert C, Rojpornpradit P, Asavametha N, Pataramontree J, Suriyapee S, Tresukosol D, Termrungruanglert W.
TI : Results of radiation therapy in stage 1B cervical carcinoma at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital : fifteen-year experience.
JN : J Med Assoc Thai 2001 Jun ; 84 (Suppl 1) : S216-27
EN-AB: A retrospective study was performed on 131 patients with stage 1B cervical carcinoma who were referred and treated with external beam radiation and intracavitary brachytherapy at the Division of Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between February 1985 and February 2000. Primary outcomes were overall survival rate, progression free survival rate, recurrence, and treatment-related complications. The treatment results from different sources of intracavitary radiation therapy were secondary endpoints. The number of patients treated with Ra-226, Cs-137, and Ir-192 intracavitary irradiation were 12, 84, and 35 patients respectively. The median follow-up times were 69, 59, and 21 months for Ra-226, Cs-137, and Ir-192, respectively. Actuarial 5-year overall survival rate was 89 per cent. The 5-year progression free survival rate was 80 per cent. Actuarial 5-year survival and progression free survival rate were comparable among different sources of intracavitary brachytherapy (p = 0.553 and p=0.793, respectively). The overall recurrent rate was 16.8 per cent. Of the recurrence; 40.9 per cent was locoregional, 54.6 per cent was distant failure, and 4.5 per cent was combined locoregional and distant failure. The overall complication rate was 25.95 per cent. The severe complication rates (Grade III-V) from treatment occurred in the urinary bladder (0.76%) and in the small bowel (0.76%.) These results suggest that radiation therapy alone is an effective treatment for stage 1B cervical carcinoma. Additionally, all types of intracavitary brachytherapy provide comparable clinical results. (NO 07282)

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